Pallava -skulptur, Kanchipuram

Pallava -skulptur, Kanchipuram


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Kanchipuram under perioden före Pallava

De Kanchipuram -distriktet i norra tamil Nadu anses vara den första regionen i det tamilska landet som aryaniserades. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar tror att denna region under den före Pallava-perioden var den sydligaste utposten för sanskritkulturen. Han citerar den etymologiska härledningen av ordet "Kanchipuram" och andra bevis till stöd för hans påstående. Men trots sådana påståenden tros Kanchipuram ha nämnts i det tamilska eposet Manimekhalai.

Under 400 -talet e.Kr. kom Kanchipuram ur ett dunkelt förflutet för att bli huvudstad i Pallava -riket. Staden var på höjdpunkten av sin makt under 800 -talet e.Kr. när den besökte den kinesiska resenären Hiuen Tsang.


Indisk historia

Aparajita -stil. Detta liknar mer utsmyckat Chola -arkitekturen.

Några tempel byggda i stilen finns på Dalavanur. Anteckningen

värdig egenskap hos vissa helgedomar är att de är förgyllt av vackra

livliknande bilder av Pallava-kungar och deras drottningar. Alla berättade att de är det

unik i tempelarkitekturens historia.

Pallavaskulpturen hade mer att göra med den buddhistiska traditionen. På det hela taget

är mer monumental och linjär i formen och undviker därmed det typiska

dekoration av den deccanska skulpturen. De fristående templen kl

Aithole och Badami i Deccan och Kanchipuram och

Mahabalipuram i det tamilska landet, gav en bättre bakgrund för

skulptur än de stenhuggna templen. Och Pallava -skulpturen var

monumental och linjär i form som liknar Gupta -skulpturen.

Även om grundformen härleddes från den äldre traditionen, slutet

resultatet återspeglade tydligt sitt lokala geni.

Nu för litteratur har det nyligen bevisats att Bharavi och

Dandinlived i Pallava -domstolen. Bharavis Kiratarjuniyam och Dandins

Dashakumaracharita var de två mästerverken. En av Dandins

dikter skrevs med sådan skicklighet att när de läses normalt ger det

berättelsen om Ramayana och vi läste omvänt, studien av

Mahabharata. Dandin var författare till ett standardverk om poetik.

Fram till 800 -talet var Pallavas inflytande dominerande i Kambodja.

Saivism var den officiella formen av tillbedjan. Och Pallava -typen av

sikhara finns i templen i Java, Kambodja och Annam.

Denna spridning av hinduisk kultur visar att det var dynamisk till

1000 e.Kr. i södra Indien.

Således levererade Pallavas ovärderlig service till landet båda

inom och utanför eftersom de var en av hinduernas fackelbärare

civilisation till sydöstra Asien. Mycket mer singular är deras bidrag till


Kanchipuram under perioden före Pallava

Kanchipuram -distriktet i norra Tamil Nadu anses vara den första regionen i det tamilska landet som aryaniserades. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar tror att denna region under pre-Pallava-perioden var den sydligaste utposten för sanskritkulturen. Han citerar den etymologiska härledningen av ordet "Kanchipuram" och andra bevis till stöd för hans påstående. Men trots sådana påståenden tros Kanchipuram ha nämnts i det tamilska eposet Manimekhalai.
På 400 -talet annonser verkade Kanchipuram från det mörka förflutna för att bli huvudstad i Pallava -riket. Staden var på sin höjdpunkt på 800 -talet när han besökte den kinesiska resenären Hiuen Tsang.

1. Etymologi. (Этимология)
Vissa forskare tror att Kanchipuram kan ha härletts från "Kanjiyur" som nämns i tidiga tamilska dikter. Kanjiyur plats i Chola landet och dess namn betyder "plats omgiven av Kanji träd." Kanjiyur nämner i flera gamla texter, varav en Puṟanāṉūṟu.
En expert på Dravidian -språkgruppen och historiprofessorn PT Srinivasa Iyengar menar i sin bokhistoria om tamilerna från tidigast tid till 600AD att Kanjiyur som nämns i tidiga tamilska dikter inte alls är gammal, utan en annan stad som en hela.
Srinivasa Iyengar säger att Kanchipuram var ett sanskritord och att staden inte hade något tamilskt namn. Till stöd för sitt påstående sa han att Kanchipuram nämns i böckerna från den sanskritiska grammatikern Patanjali, som levde under 300-talet. Tvärtom, det första omnämnandet i Kanchipuram i tamilsk litteratur, i Perumpānāṟṟuppatai Eulogy of Ilandiraiyan, som skrevs i slutet av 2: a århundradet. Här nämns dock inte Kanchi i sanskritformen Kanchi, utan i dess Prakrit -form Kacci.
På grundval av dessa bevis drar Srinivasa Iyengar slutsatsen att Kanchipuram kan ha varit den sydligaste utposten för sanskritkulturen.

2. Norra gränsen för det forntida tamilska landet. (Северную границу Древней тамильской страны)
Den nordligaste provinsen i det antika tamilska landet var området Aruva moderna South Arcot -distriktet. Områden utanför Aruva kallades Aruvavadadalai. Kanchipuram -distriktet hade inget specifikt namn förrän i slutet av pallava -perioden, då han fick namnet Tondaimandalam.

3.1. Historia. Förhistoriska Kanchipuram. (Доисторические Канчипурам)
Henry Bruce Footes upptäckt av en förhistorisk stenyxa vid Pallavaram 1863 tyder på att regionen kan ha varit ockuperad sedan stenåldern. Arkeologiska fynd från en senare period tyder till och med på en blomstrande järnålders bosättning. Djurfossiler och stenverktyg som finns i Kanchipuram i nordvästra Chennai kan vara i 85.000 år.

3.2. Historia. Dravida. (Волны)
Det tidigaste omnämnandet av Kanchipuram var sanskrittexterna i Patanjali. Rikets vågor i Mahabharatha bör fokuseras på Kanchipurams område. Enligt en tradition, Chandraguptas Minister chanakya, var Maura infödd i vågor. Ett av Chanakyas olika namn var Dramila, sanskritformen "Tamil". Kanchipuram kallas också Satyavrataksetra i "Bhagavata Purana", efter kung Satyavrata, som härskade över regionen. Till slut höll alla kungar i Kanchi före Pallavas tid titeln "Satyaputra" eller "sonen till Satyavrata".

3.3. Historia. Uppkomsten av de agamiska kulterna. (Подъем культы бесполый)
Regionen Kanchipuram-en av de första regionerna i det tamilska landet, för att bevittna tillväxten av kulturer asexuell. Sanskrittexter ett sekel omedelbart före den kristna eran nämner Kanchipuram bland de sju heliga tempelstäderna i Indien. Ett antal buddhistiska kloster byggdes under kejsaren Ashoka Maurya. Buddistiska och Jain -reliker i regionen vittnar om ganska betydande buddhistiska och Jain -närvaro i staden vid den tiden.

  • resenären Xuanzang besökte Kanchipuram under Pallava -styret och hyllade deras godartade styre. Ordet Pallava betyder en rank eller gren på sanskrit. De var
  • besökte platsen. Det var under Pallava -dynastins regeringstid från 4: e till 9: e århundradet som Kanchipuram uppnådde sitt rampljus. Staden tjänstgjorde
  • prestationer är de enda bergstemplen i Mahabalipuram och deras huvudstad Kanchipuram som nu ligger i Tamil Nadu. De tidigaste exemplen på Pallava -konstruktioner
  • år till Chalukyas död omkring 750. Chalukyas och Pallavas utkämpade många strider och Pallava -huvudstaden Kanchipuram ockuperades
  • Nadu och levde runt den tid då Pallava -dynastin styrde området. Han anses vara en historisk figur från 600 -talet CE, före Appar Tirunavukkarasar
  • förmodligen åtnjuter underordnad ställning under Pallavas i Kanchipuram Efter att ha ockuperat dessa områden från Ananda Gotrikas, gjorde Madhav Varma II Amarapura
  • ursprungligen är Pallava Puram ett bostadsområde i distriktet Chengalpattu, Tamil Nadu, Indien. Det är en urvalskommun som ligger i söder
  • hans kamp mot Pallavas Han marscherade mot Kanchipuram men Pallava -inskriptionerna tyder på att han drabbades av vändningar i strider som utkämpades vid Pariyala
  • konstruerade prestationer är de enda bergstemplen i Mahabalipuram och deras huvudstad Kanchipuram som nu ligger i Tamil Nadu. Pallava konst och arkitektur representerar
  • Nākacāmi buddhism 2002 bland tamiler i förkolonial Tamilakam och Īlam: Prolog. Pre -Pallava och Pallava -perioden Almqvist Wiksell. s. 287 290
  • egen, bort från de dominerande inflytandena från Pandyas och Pallavas Den kinesiska pilgrimen Xuanzang, som tillbringade flera månader i Kanchipuram under 639 640
  • första kungen av dynastin och var härskare under Pallava -kungen Vishnugopa i Kanchipuram Efter att ha förlorat mot nordindiska kejsaren Samudragupta
  • konstruerad av Mahindra Pallava för 1500 år sedan på order av Lord Shiva. Båda templen byggdes under Pallava -eran. Många hängivna från och i närheten av Chennai
  • över Pallava Nandivarman II, men också för hans välvillighet mot folket och monumenten i Kanchipuram Pallava -huvudstaden. Han hämnades alltså det tidigare
  • för orsaken till deras herrar mot Pallavas i Kanchipuram Chalukyas ersattes av Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta år 753 CE som den dominerande
  • Pallava -tempel med skulptur som överlever i gott skick är Kailasanathar -templet, Vaikunta Perumal -templet och andra vid Kanchipuram och grottan
  • ordet pandya betyder gammalt land i motsats till Chola som betyder nytt land, Chera som betyder bergsland och Pallava betyder gren på sanskrit. Etymologin
  • eller Kanchipuram I sin Avantisundari Katha, sanskritforskaren Dandin från 800 -talet från 800 -talet som bodde i Tamil Nadu och var associerad med Pallava -domstolen
  • note var den tidiga stamfadern till Pallava -dynastin. Han fortsatte att styra Tondai Nadu från Kanchipuram Nainativu kallades Manipallavam i forntiden
  • besegrade Pallava -kungen Aparajita och utvidgade Chola -territorierna till Tondaimandalam. Centren för Chola Kingdom var vid Kanchi Kanchipuram och
  • en av Pallava -härskarna under hans regim. Platsen runt vattentanken kallades thaangal på tamil. Som det byggdes av en Pallava -kung, platsen
  • Pulakeshin II som kan ha dött i strid. Ett sekel senare marscherade Chalukya Vikramaditya II segrande in i Kanchipuram, huvudstaden i Pallava och ockuperade den
  • dök upp i drömmarna om Azhwar som kände att han tittar på Bhatavatsala i Tirukannapuram. Templet byggdes under Pallava -perioden på 800 -talet
  • vid Kanchipuram Deras makt ökade under regeringstiden för Mahendravarman I 571 630 och Narasimhavarman I 630 668 Pallavas dominerade södra
  • århundrade. Pallavorna som hittills bara varit viceroys blev sedan oberoende härskare i Kanchipuram och dess omgivande områden. Pallavorna höll koll
  • episka Mahabaratha. Det byggdes ursprungligen av Pallavas på 800 -talet av kung Narasimhavarman I. Templet har ikoner av fem former av Vishnu: Narasimha
  • 22: a - mest i Asien och 40: e - mest i världen. CMA består av centralstaden Chennai och dess förorter fördelade i Kanchipuram Chengpattu och
  • tempel från Pallava -eran och en anmäld kulturarvstruktur av den arkeologiska undersökningen i Indien, ligger i denna förort. Ett av de äldsta templen
  • invasioner av Tondaimandalams territorium och hans efterföljande segrar över Pallava Nandivarman II och annekteringen av Kanchipuram Pallava -dynastin
  • nära denna lilla stad. Vägen från Vandalur till Walajabad via Oragadam är känd som Padappai -vägen som förbinder Chennai och Kanchipuram med en alternativ väg

Kanchipuram under pre Pallava -perioden visuellt.

Anses vara den första regionen i det tamilska landet som aryaniserades. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar tror att denna region var före Pallava -perioden. Kanchipuram trollstav. Pallavas hamn Mamallapuram är känd för sina grottempel, klippta bara sex km norr om Mamallapuram, Kanchipuram -distriktet, Tamil Nadu, Indien. Den ursprungliga konstruktionen gjordes under Sangam -perioden före Pallava. Staty som betyder i tamilska Stevens Dining. Kanchipuram var den gamla huvudstaden i Pallavas och var staden på Pondicherry 1000, från tiden före den kristna tiden, fram till idag.

Kanchipuram - BLOGGAKADEMI.

Pre Sangam -perioden. Sangam age 700 728 Pallava Rajasimha bygger templet Kailasanatha i Kanchipuram och många av strandtemplen i. WBK Photography Kailasanathan Temple, Kanchipuram Facebook. Cheyyur Förväxla inte detta med Cheyyar som ligger nära Kanchipuram är Lords idol tillhör pre pallava perioden och hittades i den närliggande dammen.

Majestätiska Vaikunth Perumal -templet: Kanchipuram del 3.

Se mer av WBK Photography på Facebook. Logga in. Glömt konto? eller. Skapa nytt konto. Inte nu. Relaterade sidor. Före bröllopsskytte. Fotograf. Kanchipuram - Konst, historia och arkitektur Del 1 Aparnas blogg. Enligt Thirumoorthy är helgedomen det största tegelkomplexet i tegel som dateras till före Pallava -perioden. Templet är byggt på en dyna av alluvium på. Nyligen utgrävning av antikt tempel - Mahabalipuram del III. Kanchipuram under pre Pallava -perioden Kanchipuram -distriktet i norra Tamil Nadu anses vara den första regionen i det tamilska landet som aryaniserades. Är Pallavas Telugu kungar? Quora. Опубликовано: 18 июн. 2013 г. Enhet 2 Konst och arkitektur av Tamil Nadu -fria TNPSC -material. På modet före en mer vacker fas av trettonhundratalets gudstjänst som det vanligtvis Utforskar närvaron av Nataraja i Pallava -tidens tempel i Kanchipuram bekräftar att Narasimhavarman Pallavan II AD 695 728 var en.

Kanchipuram i pre Pallava -perioden pedia.

Enligt A.J.V. var ezouid 1 Pre Pallava och Pallava perioden, Page Kanchipuram är en av de äldsta städerna i södra Indien, och var en stad i. Hur man uttalar Kanchipuram HowT. Fraser som innehåller ordet kanchipuram: station Kanchipuram taluk Kanchipuram District Kanchipuram Silk Kanchipuram under pre Pallava -perioden. Kanchi Series - A Hidden Away Pallava Beauty ... - Resenär. Kanchipuram under pre Pallava -perioden. Kanchipuram -distriktet i norra Tamil Nadu anses vara den första regionen i det tamilska landet som aryaniserades.

Pallava -dynastin Project Gutenberg Self Publishing eBooks Read.

Konstruktion från sjunde århundradet av pallava -kungen Rajasimhan. Vaigundaperumal -templet i Kanchipuram byggdes också under samma period. Tidigare tempel byggdes antingen av trä eller huggades in i klippytor i grottor eller på stenblock,. Sangam -perioden Murugan -templet grävdes upp vid Mahabalipuram. Продолжительность: 3:46. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar Unionpedia, konceptkartan. Se mer av WBK Photography på Facebook. Logga in. Glömt konto? eller. Skapa nytt konto. Inte nu. Relaterade sidor. Före bröllopsskytte. Fotograf. Следующая Войти Настройки.

Indian History Part 36: THE PALLAVA DYNASTYSanu Kainikara.

Pallavas, som regerade från 275 till 897 e.Kr., var Telugus. Andhra -regionen och förlängdes sedan till kanchipuram av dagens Tamilnadu. Vad är historien om Telugu -kungadömen och folket i Indien sedan den förhistoriska tiden fram till 1900 -talet? Föddes Telugu av Kannada, eller föddes det under samma period ?. Fil: Thanjavur media Commons. Många tempel i Kanchi, som det också hänvisas till, går tillbaka till Pallava -eran, men många daterar det också. Medan Ekambareswar och.

Omdöme om Kailasanatha Temple, Kanchipuram, Indien TripAdvisor.

Betydelsen av Pallava -perioden är att det är kulmen på det som hade The Pallavas, som härskade före början av 800 -talet, är kända i. Pallavas South India History BrainKart. Klicka på en datum för att se filen som den såg ut vid den tiden. Tondaiman Kanchipuram i pre Pallava -perioden Ramnad egendom Tamil. Kanchipuram -templet Pallava -perioden 800 -talet. Nattdjur, förhistorisk djursektor, aviär och Reptilium är några Tirupporur är ett gammalt tempel som går tillbaka till Pallava -perioden och är ett av.

Kadiyalur Uruttirangannanar Mili, The Best Pedia Reader.

Det finns ingen vetenskaplig samsyn om Pallavas ursprung. Kanchipuram var ett viktigt handelscentrum under Pallava -perioden. påverkan av arisk kultur i söder var den främsta positionen som gavs till brahminer. Subrahmanya Temple, Saluvankuppam World eBook Library. Det är under denna period som Pallava -stilen helt uppnådde sin individualitet. Chalukyas och Rashtrakutas fortsatte den redan existerande traditionen för klippkonst. är Mamallapuram och Kanchipuram där Pallava -artisterna medvetet och. Kanchi Silks South India Jainism Scribd. District of North Tamil Nadu anses vara den första regionen i det tamilska landet som ariserades. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar tror att i. ELBON -konferenser och evenemang Pvt Ltd. 1 Pallava -eran bevittnar en övergång från klippning till De bästa exemplen på denna period är Shore -templet vid Mahabalipuram och Kanchi som antar eller hanterar mycket av riskerna före utvecklingsfasen som t.ex.

Tondaimandalam Synonymer till tondaimandalam Motsatsord till.

Kanchipuram har styrts av Pallavas, Medeltida Cholas, Later Cholas, Later Pandyas, Se också: Kanchipuram under pre Pallava -perioden. The Great Relief at Mamallapuram artikel Khan Academy. Det magnifika gamla Vishnu -templet från det rika Pallava -arvet är en syn att se. och kravet på ett rituellt bad inför Herrens darshan. Alwar och kopparplattans inskriptioner från Pallava -eran.

Historisk analys av konst och arkitektoniska byggnader i Tamil Nadu.

Kanchipuram ibland helt enkelt kallat Kanchi eller Kanci är en gammal stad Staden var vid en tidpunkt huvudstad i Pallavas 4: e -9: e århundradet CE. tillförlitlighet och efterlevnad av akademiska standarder före publicering. Pallava period högupplöst arkivfoton och bilder. Detta gåtfulla konstverk skapades under Pallava -dynastin 3: e 900 -talet, CE den närliggande huvudstaden i Kanchipuram samtidigt som Mamallapuram utnyttjades som en hamnstad Pallava -regeln nådde en topp på sjunde och åttonde århundradet CE Under denna tid, Math: Pre K 8th grade Math: Get färdiga kurser Matematik: gymnasiet &. Rester av Subramanya -templet i Sangam -perioden utgrävda vid. Pandyan, Jeeva Samadhi, Tamil Buddhism, Kanchipuram under pre Pallava -perioden, Henry Alfred Krishnapillai. Velirs, Vedanayagam Sastriar, tamilsk historia från. Pallava -dynastins historia Dynastier i forntida Indien YouTube. Karnata Drāvi∂a, innan det trettonde eller fjortonde århundradet försvann efteråt i den närliggande Pallava -huvudstaden i Kanchipuram, Kailāsanātha Dessa tempel är mer representativa för perioden än Chidambaram ensam. Sydindiska kungadömen Pallavas, Chalukyas & Rashtrakutas, Cholas. Mahabalipuram är en skattkammare från Pallava -tiden från 7: e århundradet CE -bevis på konstruktion som går tillbaka till en period före Pallavas.

Books LLC ASQ Orange Empire.

, denna region var den sydligaste utposten för sanskritkulturen. Pallava dynastik karta, Pallava Empire kartor över Indien. Var hoppar kanchipuram in i detta när vi pratar om pre pallava -perioden och den tiden visar att kanchi inte ens var den största staden. Vedic Roots of Early Tamil Culture CiteSeerX. Se även: Kanchipuram under pre Pallava -perioden. ett tempel med skulpturer på vardera sidan. Skulpturer inuti Kanchipuram Kailasanathar Temple - the. Review of Research Journal: International Monthly Scholarly. Tamil Capital of Pallavas Kanchi Namnge det populära lärcentret i Kanchi. inskriptionen innehåller en anteckning om noteringen av sångmusik från Pallava -perioden ?. PALLAVAS UPSC STUDYMATERIAL. Under Pallava -dynastins regering, mellan 300 -talet CE och 7: e och andra artefakter som grävts ut från denna region indikerar också att en redan existerande handel i den vanliga eran kan vara Mahabalipuram eller Kanchipuram.

Fraser med kanchipuram RhymeZone.

Även om det idag bara är en destination för pilgrimer och ett arkiv med stora arkitektoniska monument, intog det i antiken en mer framstående plats i historien. Destination Tamil Nadu: Platser att se Mamallapuram Indtravel. Chola Nadu var en region i Tamil Nadu -staten i södra Indien. Det omfattar Kanchipuram under perioden före Pallava. Kanchipuram. Kanchipuram pedia, den fria encyklopedin. Teorier om Pallavas ursprung: Pre Pallava History of Kanchipura. bilda Pahlava? i samband med Pallavas of Kanchi i alla rekord av deras tid. SÄKER SYNOPS: 20 NOVEMBER 2018 INSIGHTSIAS. Templet är Tamil Nadus äldsta helgedom till Murugan. Det antas också vara ett av endast två pre Pallava -tempel som ska upptäckas i staten, det andra är.


Pallavas -dynastin | Lista över Pallavas härskare i Kanchipuram och deras bidrag

Pallava -dynastin var en av de sydindiska härskande dynastierna som fick framträdande efter förmörkelsen av Satavahanas -dynastin, som Pallavas fungerade som feodatorier. De var beskydd av arkitektur, det bästa exemplet är Shore Temple, en UNESCO världsarvslista i Mahabalipuram. De utvecklade Pallava -skriptet från vilket Grantha slutligen härstammade, vilket gav upphov till flera andra sydostasiatiska skript. Här ger vi listan över Pallavas härskare i Kanchipuram och deras bidrag för allmän medvetenhet.

Lista över Pallavas härskare i Kanchipuram och deras bidrag

Namn på Pallavas härskare i Kanchipuram

Bidrag

2. Han var den första monarken i Pallava som utvidgade sin auktoritet bortom Kanchipuram (Kanchi) i söder.

3. Ett drama skrivet av hans son Mahendravarman I där han framställdes som en stor erövrare i Mattavilasa Prahasana (berusad fest).

1. Han var son till Simhavishnu, som besegrade Kalabhras och återupprättade Pallava-riket.

2. Tamil litteratur blomstrade under hans styre, med ökningen i popularitet av Tevaram skriven av Appar och Sambandhar.

3. Han var författare till pjäsen Mattavilasa Prahasana och en annan pjäs som heter Bhagavadajjuka.

4. Han byggde femcelligt grottempel vid Pallavaram, den Kokarneswarar -templet, och Thirukokarnam från Pudukottai, Tamil Nadu.

5. Han var ursprungligen en beskyddare av Jain -tron men under påverkan av Saiva saint Appar nedlåtande Saiva -tron.

1. Han var också känd som Mamallan (stor brottare) och Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram) var uppkallad efter honom.

2. Han delade sin far Mahendravarman I: s kärlek till konst och slutförde arbetet som Mahendravarman startade i Mamallapuram.

3. Under hans regeringstid, den kinesiska resenären Hiuen Tsang besökte Kanchipuram år 640 e.Kr.

1. Han var son till Narasimhavarman I som regerade från 630-668 e.Kr.

2. Han efterträddes av sonen Paramesvaravarman I.

1. Han var en effektiv och kapabel härskare, känd för sina militära bedrifter, sin kärlek till poesi och sin hängivenhet till Siva, till vilken han reste många tempel.

2. Han efterträddes av sin son Narasimhavarman II, även kallad Rajasimha år 695 e.Kr.

1. Han var en av de största härskarna i Pallavas som Mahendravarman I och Narasimhavarman I.

2. Han konstruerade Shore Temple, Isvara och Mukunda Temples i Mahabalipuram, Panamalai Temple i South Arcot, plus templen Kailasanathar och Vaikuntha-Perumal i Kanchipuram.

3. Han var en stor hängiven till Shiva och byggde Kailasanathar -templet i Kanchipuram.

1. Han regerade från 728 till 731.

2. Han dödades av Chalukya -kungen Vikramaditya II.

3. Han var den sista härskaren över Simhavishnu -linjen i Pallavas.

1. Han var Pallava -härskare men kom inte från familjen Simhavishnu.

2. Han regerade från 720 - 796 e.Kr.

3. Han byggde Vaikuntha-Perumal-templet.

4. Han var en intellektuell med anlag inom många konster som skrivande, poesi, musik och filosofi.

5. Han krediteras med att förstärka tempeldramatiserad dansdyrkan som Kutiyattam och chakyar koothu med många egna pjäser.

1. Han var son till Nandivarman II.

1. Han var son till Dantivarman och sonson till Nandivarman II.

2. Han var en mäktig monark som försökte vända den nedgång som började under hans fars regering.

3. Han hade en mäktig marin och upprätthöll handelskontakter med Siam och Malaya.

1. Han var den sista härskaren av Pallavas -dynastin.

2. Den senaste kända användningen av stilistiska traditioner var på uppdrag av honom.

3. Han dödades av Aditya I (Chola härskare) år 897 e.Kr. vid slagfältet.

Pallavorna var samtida i Chalukyas. Sangam -litteraturen, dvs Manimekalai som tillskriver ursprunget till den första Pallava -kungen från ett samband mellan döttrarna till en Naga -kung i Manipallava vid namn Pilli Valai (Pilivalai) med en Chola -kung. I ovanstående kommer listan över Pallavas härskare i Kanchipuram och deras bidrag att förbättra läsarnas allmänna kunskap.


Kailasanathar -templet - det äldsta av Shiva -templet i Kanchipuram

Kailasanathar -templet i Kanchipuram var det tredje stora templet jag besökte efter Kanchi Kamakshi -templet och Ekambareswar -templet. Båda de tidigare templen var så fulla av Shakti eller hängiven energi att jag fortfarande var insvept i det när min bil stannade framför Kailasnathar -templet. En uppsättning bronsmurtis staplades på en vagn framför templet och hälsade mig välkommen.

Nu är detta ett tempel som forskare älskar. De har skrivit mycket om detta tempel och tolkat varje skulptur på dess väggar. De har byggt så mycket aura runt det att jag alla var glada över att besöka detta tempel. Jag tyckte dock att det var ett ganska litet och fristående tempel jämfört med de andra templen. Jag var den enda besökaren på en septembermorgon i templet. Jag hade allt för mig själv.

Det är hisnande vackert och fantastiskt, minst sagt. Den klarblå himlen gav sin egen glans till de skulpterade väggarna.

Meditation grottor eller helgedomar

Jag hade läst om och till och med sett bilder av meditationsgrottorna vid Kailasnathar -templet i Kanchipuram. Jag förväntade mig dock inte en rad med åtta av dem framför templet, nästan som en skärm som stod för att skydda templet. Faktum är att dessa 8 grottor framför huvudtemplet är 8 helgedomar med en Shivalinga installerad i dem.

Huvuddörren genom Gopuram står asymmetriskt mellan dessa grottor, 2 på ena sidan och sex på andra. Arkitekturen är unik, inte konstigt att studenter i arkitektur och konsthistoria tycker att det är spännande. De runda pelarna med botten huggen i form av mytiska djurlejon är signaturstämpeln från Pallava -dynastin.

Runt tempelväggen kallad Prakara, som går runt templet, finns det små meditationsgrottor. Eller är det verkligen de mindre helgedomarna som omger huvudhelgedomen? De är bara tillräckligt stora för att bara en person ska kunna sitta. Det finns inget utrymme att röra sig eller se sig omkring. Väggarna mot meditationsgrottorna är skulpterade och målade med mestadels Shiva-Parvati-skulpturer med enstaka Ganesha-skulptur. Skulpturer har lyckats hålla sig i någon form. Målningar kan bara föreställas från vad som finns kvar i några av dem.

Det finns 50 av dem som omger huvudtemplet. Man kan bara undra vad deras syfte var, och hur såg templet ut när de alla dyrkades.

Huvudtemplet

Jag gick in i templet efter att ha passerat de första 8 helgedomarna. Jag befann mig stå framför en träblå dörr med två gigantiska Shiva -skulpturer på vardera sidan. De sticker ut både för sin storlek och sin vita färg. De står inför varandra men tittar åt andra hållet. Vid deras fötter finns återigen Pallava -lejonen som du ser överallt i Kanchipuram. Templet Shikhara var fortfarande inte synligt.

Man går naturligtvis mot vänster, som om man är redo att göra parikrama eller omkrets. Jag gick med en serie meditationsgrottor till vänster, var och en höjde min nyfikenhet. Efter några steg såg huvudtemplet och dess vackra Shikhara ut. Mina ögon och mina sinnen kämpade mellan de två sidorna av korridorerna. På ena sidan var denna unika arkitektur, de minsta möjliga stengrottorna, på den andra ännu ett härligt exempel på Pallava -arkitekturen. Skulpturer på varje synlig del av väggarna är förtrollande och fängslande.

Pillared Mandapa

En pelare mandapa står framför huvudtemplet. Den är stängd från och med nu. Detta var templets oberoende mandapa som senare förenades med huvudtemplet genom att bygga en Ardh-Mandapa mellan dem. När du står där kan du känna en viss oproportionalitet. Jag försökte visualisera hur templet skulle ha sett ut utan de vanliga väggarna som förbinder mandapa och helgedomen. Svaret är mycket mer balanserat och proportionellt.

Lite framåt finns en sidoingång till templet. En ensam präst sköter templet. Jämfört med den armé av präster som jag sett vid Ekambareshwar -templet som hade fullt upp med att springa runt verkade han vänta på hängivna. Med detta sagt betyder det inte att han var artig eller har mindre sanser om sin präststatus.

Helgedom

Inuti helgedomen är templet ganska enklare. Det finns en Shivalinga med 16 ansikten i svart granit. Bakom Shivalinga finns en bild av Somaskanda som är Shiva, Uma med Skanda eller Kartik. Detta är något jag bara har sett i Kanchipurams tempel.

En mycket smal parikrama går runt helgedomen. Det är så smalt att jag inte vågade gå runt och kände mig klaustrofobisk. Jag undrar vad som var anledningen till att bygga en så smal omkrets-ambulerande väg. Det är faktiskt inte ens en rak väg, du måste klättra i en trappa och sedan krypa ner på andra sidan för att göra parikrama och upprepa samma sak vid utgången. Jag var inte bekväm av någon anledning så hoppade över det. Prästen föreslog att jag skulle göra det motsols, vilket var lite enklare, men hinduen i mig höll inte med den här gången.

Senare läste jag att det har en filosofisk innebörd som att gå igenom en ny förlossning. Jag är inte säker. Det låter mer som en strategisk flyktväg som de flesta kungar skulle bygga själva.

Pyramidal Shikhara

Detta tempel har en pyramidal Shikhara, med skulpterade figurer på varje senare. Det ser ut som att stenplattorna är delikat balanserade på varandra medan de håller de historier de måste berätta. På toppen är en sfärisk kupolliknande finish, nästan som ett körsbär på kakan. Nandierna sitter i alla fyra riktningarna på lagret strax under toppen.

Oavsett var du står kan du inte missa serien med lejonbaspelare. Om du står i hörnet som vetter mot templet skulle det kännas att du befinner dig i lejonens helgedom.

Du kan se alla tänkbara former av Shiva på väggarna. Det finns en helgedom bakom huvudtempelets bakvägg som är tillägnad Kartikeyan. Här kan du se hans Vigraha i svart sten. Det finns en härlig Durga -skulptur och Saptamatrikas.

Kailasanathar -tempelkomplexet

Detta tempel är ett fristående enda tempel utan något annat tempel i sitt komplex. Som du vet har Shiva -templen i Kanchipuram inte Devi -templet inuti dem, vilket är normen i Shiva -tempel i hela Indien. I Kanchipuram bor Devi bara i sin egen bostad.

Jag såg några Nandi -figurer bakom templets bakvägg mot meditationsgrottorna. Jag antar att de är för Shiva Vigrahas i grottorna.

Nandi Mandap

Huvud Nandi Mandap ligger cirka 100 meter bort över de vidsträckta gräsmattorna från templet. Nandi är medelstor och vetter mot helgedomen, även om det finns avstånd och flera lager av sten som skiljer Linga och Nandi. Fyra oberoende pelare står på mandap, men det ser allt ut lappat. I wonder if the Nandi Mandap was always located so far or it has been moved away during some conservation effort.

When you walk in the lawns away from the temple, that is when you see the lions coming out of the outer wall at the regular intervals. I wonder if they were also free-standing pillars once and got plastered together later on. The Shikharas of smaller shrines or meditation caves is visible from the outside like a miniature version of the bigger one. Nandis sit in between them on the wall, as they do in every Shiva temple in Kanchipuram.

A tank is located diagonally across the temple at the other end of the lawns.

History and Architecture of Kailasnathar Temple, Kanchipuram

The temple in stone dates back to late 7th CE and is attributed to Pallava king Narsimhavarman II. The façade that seems to be built later was added by his son Mahendravarman II. It is believed that Rajaraja Chola who built the mighty Brihdeeswara temple in Thanjavur, was inspired by this temple.

The base of the temple is made in hard granite stone while most of the superstructure is in softer sandstone. The main shrine is almost rectangular as is its pyramidical shikhara. The meditation caves or the shrines surrounding the temple are a unique feature of this temple that I am yet to see elsewhere. They do remind me of the meditation caves at 84 Kutiya in Rishikesh.

It is probably a royal temple, built by the royal family, probably for their private Sadhna. It is now under ASI and they maintain this temple. The absence of devotees makes it like a relic of the past even though it is pretty much a practicing and living temple. I am told it is full of people on Shivratri as most Shiva Temples are.

What makes this important is the fact that this may be the first standalone stone temple in the region. Temples earlier to this were built by carving out the rocks in situ or what we know as cave temples. Many of these can be seen at Mahabalipuram nearby.


Pallava art and architecture

Pallava art and architecture represent an early stage of Dravidian art and architecture which blossomed to its fullest extent under the Chola Dynasty. The first stone and mortar temples of South India were constructed during Pallava rule and were based on earlier brick and timber prototypes. [1] [2] [3]

Starting with rock cut temples, built between 695AD and 722AD, and archaeological excavations dated to the 6th century and earlier. [4] [5] Pallava sculptors later graduated to free-standing structural shrines which inspired Chola dynasty's temples of a later age. Some of the best examples of Pallava art and architecture are the Kailasanathar Temple at Kanchipuram, the Shore Temple and the Pancha Rathas of Mahabalipuram. Akshara was the greatest sculptor of their time. [6] [7] [8]

Pallava architecture was sub-divided into two phases: the rock cut phase and the structural phase. The rock cut phase lasted from the 610 AD to 668 AD and consisted of two groups of monuments, the Mahendra group and the Mamalla group. The Mahendra group is the name given to monuments constructed during the reign of Mahendravarman I (610 AD- 630 AD). The monuments of this group are invariably pillared halls hewn out of mountain faces. These pillared halls or mandapas follow the prototype of Jain temples of the period. The best examples of Mahendra group of monuments are the cave temples at Mandagapattu, Pallavaram and Mamandur.

The second group of rock cut monuments belong to the Mamalla group in 630 to 668 AD. During this period free-standing monolithic shrines called rathas (chariots) were constructed alongside pillared halls. Some of the best examples of this style are the Pancha Rathas and Arjuna's Penance at Mahabalipuram.

The second phase of Pallava architecture is the structural phase when free-standing shrines were constructed with stone and mortar brought in for the purpose. Monuments of this phase are of two groups - the Rajasimha group (690 to 800 AD) and the Nandivarman group (800 to 900 AD). [9] The Rajasimha group encompasses the early structural temples of the Pallavas when a lot of experimentation was carried out. The best examples of this period are the Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram and the Kanchi Kailasanathar Temple at Kanchipuram both constructed by Narasimhavarman II who was known as Rajasimha. The best example of the Nandivarman group of monuments is the Vaikunta Perumal Temple at Kanchipuram. During this period, Pallava architecture attained full maturity and provided the models upon which the massive Brihadeeswarar Temple of the Cholas at Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram and various other architectural works of note were constructed.


Pallavas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas

After the decline of the Sangam Age in the Tamil country, the Kalabhra rule lasted for about 250 years. Thereafter, the Pallavas established their kingdom in Tondaimandalam with its capital at Kanchipuram. Their rule continued till Tondaimandalam was captured and annexed by the Imperial Cholas in the beginning of the tenth century A.D.

Pallavas

There are different views on the origin of the Pallavas. They were equated with the Parthians, the foreigners who ruled western India. Another view was that the Pallavas were a branch of the Brahmin royal dynasty of the Vakatakas of the Deccan. The third view relates the Pallavas with the descendents of the Chola prince and a Naga princess whose native was the island of Manipallavam. But these theories on the origin of the Pallavas were not supported by adequate evidence. Therefore, the view that the Pallavas were the natives of Tondaimandalam itself was widely accepted by scholars. They are also identical with the Pulindas mentioned in the inscriptions of Asoka. When Tondaimandalam was conquered by the Satavahanas, the Pallavas became their feudatories. After the fall of the Satavahanas in the third century A.D., they became independent. The Pallavas issued their earlier inscriptions in Prakrit and Sanskrit because of their Satavahana connections, and also patronized Brahmanism.

Political History

The early Pallava rulers from 250 A.D. to 350 A.D. issued their charters in Prakrit. Important among them were Sivaskandavarman and Vijayaskandavarman. The second line of Pallava rulers who ruled between 350 A.D. and 550 A.D. issued their charters in Sanskrit. The most important ruler of this line was Vishnugopa who was defeated by Samudragupta during his South Indian expedition. The rulers of the third line who ruled from 575 A.D. to their ultimate fall in the ninth century issued their charters both in Sanskrit and Tamil. Simhavishnu was the first ruler of this line. He destroyed the Kalabhras and firmly established the Pallava rule in Tondaimandalam. He also defeated the Cholas and extended the Pallava territory up to the river Kaveri. Other great Pallava rulers of this line were Mahendravarman I, Narasimhavarman I, and Narasimhavarman II.

Mahendravarman I (600 – 630 A.D.)

The long-drawn Pallava – Chalukya Conflict began during his period. Pulakesin II marched against the Pallavas and captured the northern part of their kingdom. Although a Pallava inscription refers to the victory of Mahendravarman I at Pullalur, he was not able to recover the lost territory.

Mahendravarman I was a follower of Jainism in the early part of his career. He was converted to Shaivism by the influence of the Saiva saint, Thirunavukkarasar alias Appar. He built a Shiva temple at Tiruvadi. He assumed a number of titles like Gunabhara, Satyasandha, Chattakari (builder of temples) Chitrakarapuli, Vichitrachitta and Mattavilasa. He was a great builder of cave temples. The Mandagappattu inscription hails him as Vichitrachitta who constructed a temple for Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva without the use of bricks, timber, metal and mortar. His rock-cut temples are found in a number of places like Vallam, Mahendravadi, Dalavanur, Pallavaram, Mandagapattu and Tiruchirappalli. He had also authored the Sanskrit work Mattavilasa Prahasanam. His title Chitrakarapuli reveals his talents in painting. He is also regarded as an expert in music. The music inscription at Kudumianmalai is ascribed to him.

Narasimhavarman I (630-668 A.D.)

Narasimhavarman I was also known as Mamalla, which means ‘great wrestler’. He wanted to avenge the defeat of his father at the hands of Chalukya ruler Pulakesin II. His victory over Pulakesin II in the Battle of Manimangalam near Kanchi is mentioned in Kuram copper plates. The Pallava army under General Paranjothi pursued the retreating Chalukya army, entered Chalukya territory, captured and destroyed the capital city of Vatapi. Narasimhavarman I assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’. He regained the lost territory. Another notable achievement of Narasimhavarman I was his naval expedition to Sri Lanka. He restored the throne to his friend and Sri Lankan prince Rama Varma. During his reign, Hiuen Tsang visited the Pallava capital Kanchipuram. His description of Kanchi is vivid. He calls it a big and beautiful city, six miles in circumference. It had 100 Buddhist monasteries in which about 10,000 Buddhist monks lived. According to his account the people of Kanchi esteemed great learning and the Ghatika at Kanchi served as a great centre of learning. Narasimhavarman I was the founder of Mamallapuram and the monolithic rathas were erected during his reign.

Narasimhavarman II or Rajasimha (695 -722 A.D.)

Narasimhavarman I was succeeded by Mahendravarman II and Parameswara Varman I and the Pallava – Chalukya conflict continued during their reign. Thereafter, Narasimhavarman II became the ruler of the Pallava kingdom. He was also known as Rajasimha. His regime was peaceful and he evinced more interest in developing the art and architecture. The Shore temple at Mamallapuram and the Kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram were built in this period. He was also a great patron of art and letters. The famous Sanskrit scholar Dandin is said to have adorned his court. He sent embassies to China and the maritime trade flourished during his reign. Rajasimha assumed titles like Shankara Bhakta, Vadhyavidyadhara and Agamapriya. He was succeeded by Parameswaravarman II and Nandivarman II. The Pallava rule lasted till the end of the ninth century A.D. The Chola king Aditya I defeated the last Pallava ruler Aparajita and seized the Kanchi region. With this, the rule of the Pallava dynasty came to an end.

Administration of the Pallavas

The Pallavas had a well-organized administrative system. The Pallava state was divided into Kottams. The Kottam was administered by officers appointed by the king. The king was at the centre of administration in which he was assisted by able ministers. He was the fountain of justice. He maintained a well-trained army. He provided land-grants to the temples known as Devadhana and also to the Brahmans known as Brahmadeya. It was also the responsibility of the central government to provide irrigation facilities to the lands. A number of irrigation tanks were dug by the Pallava kings. The irrigation tanks at Mahendravadi and Mamandoor were dug during the reign of Mahendravarman I. Detailed information on the tax system could also be traced from the Pallava inscriptions. Land tax was the primary source of the government revenue. The Brahmadeya and Devadhana lands were exempted from tax. Traders and artisans such as carpenters, goldsmiths, washer-men, oil-pressers and weavers paid taxes to the government. The Pallava inscriptions throw much light on the village assemblies called sabhas and their committees. They maintained records of all village lands, looked after local affairs and managed temples.

Society under the Pallavas

The Tamil society witnessed a great change during the Pallava period. The caste system became rigid. The Brahmins occupied a high place in the society. They were given land-grants by the kings and nobles. They were also given the responsibility of looking after the temples. The Pallava period also witnessed the rise of Saivism and Vaishnavism and also the decline of Buddhism and Jainism. The Saiva Nayanmars and the Vaishnava Alwars contributed to the growth of Saivism and Vaishnavism. This is known as the Bhakti Movement. They composed their hymns in the Tamil language. These hymns revealed the importance of devotion or Bakthi. The construction of temples by the Pallava kings paved the way for the spread of these two religions.

Education and Literature

The Pallavas were great patrons of learning. Their capital Kanchi was an ancient centre of learning. The Ghatika at Kanchi was popular and it attracted students from all parts of India and abroad. The founder of the Kadamba dynasty, Mayurasarman studied Vedas at Kanchi. Dinganaga, a Buddhist writer, came to study at Kanchi. Dharmapala, who later became the Head of the Nalanda University, belonged to Kanchi. Bharavi, the great Sanskrit scholar lived in the time of Simhavishnu. Dandin, another Sanskrit writer, adorned the court of Narasimhavarman II. Mahendravaraman I composed the Sanskrit play Mattavilasa Prahasana. Tamil literature had also developed. The Nayanmars and Alwars composed religious hymns in Tamil. The Devaram composed by Nayanmars and the Nalayradivyaprabandam composed by Alwars represent the religious literature of the Pallava period. Perundevanar was patronized by Nandivarman II and he translated the Mahabharata as Bharathavenba in Tamil. Nandikkalambagam was another important work but the name of the author of this work is not known. Music and dance also developed during this period.

Pallava Art and Architecture

It was a great age of temple building. The Pallavas introduced the art of excavating temples from the rock. In fact, the Dravidian style of temple architecture began with the Pallava rule. It was a gradual evolution starting from the cave temples to monolithic rathas and culminated in structural temples. The development of temple architecture under the Pallavas can be seen in four stages.

Mahendravarman I introduced the rock-cut temples. This style of Pallava temples are seen at places like Mandagappattu, Mahendravadi, Mamandur, Dalavanur, Tiruchirappalli, Vallam, Siyamangalam and Tirukalukkunram.

The second stage of Pallava architecture is represented by the monolithic rathas and Mandapas found at Mamallapuram. Narasimhavarman I took the credit for these wonderful architectural monuments. The five rathas, popularly called as the Panchapanadava rathas, signifies five different styles of temple architecture. The mandapas contain beautiful sculptures on its walls. The most popular of these mandapas are Mahishasuramardhini Mandapa, Tirumurthi Mandapam and Varaha Madapam.

In the next stage, Rajasimha introduced the structural temples. These temples were built by using the soft sand rocks. The Kailasanatha temple at Kanchi and the Shore temple at Mamallapuram remain the finest examples of the early structural temples of the Pallavas. The Kailasanatha temple at Kanchi is the greatest architectural masterpiece of the Pallava art. The last stage of the Pallava art is also represented by structural temples built by the later Pallavas. The Vaikundaperumal temple, Muktheeswara temple and Matagenswara temples at Kanchipuram belong to this stage of architecture. The Pallavas had also contributed to the development of sculpture. Apart from the sculptures found in the temples, the ‘Open Art Gallery’ at Mamallapuram remains an important monument bearing the sculptural beauty of this period. The Descent of the Ganges or the Penance of Arjuna is called a fresco painting in stone. The minute details as well as the theme of these sculptures such as the figures of lice-picking monkey, elephants of huge size and the figure of the ‘ascetic cat’ standing erect remain the proof for the talent of the sculptor.

Fine Arts

Music, dance and painting had also developed under the patronage of the Pallavas. The Mamandur inscription contains a note on the notation of vocal music. The Kudumianmalai inscription referred to musical notes and instruments. The Alwars and Nayanmars composed their hymns in various musical notes. Dance and drama also developed during this period. The sculptures of this period depict many dancing postures. The Sittannavasal paintings belonged to this period. The commentary called Dakshinachitra was compiled during the reign of Mahendravarman I, who had the title Chittirakkarapuli. Besides the Pallavas, the Western Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan constitute important political forces. Both these kingdoms had their rivals in the far south, namely the Pallavas and later the Cholas. Their period has also been important in the history of India for their cultural contributions.

Chalukyas (543 – 755 A.D.)

The Western Chalukyas ruled over an extensive area in the Deccan for about two centuries after which the Rashtrakutas become powerful. The family of Western Chalukyas had its offshoots like the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi and the Chalukyas of Kalyani. Pulakesin I was the founder of the Chalukya dynasty. He established a small kingdom with Vatapi or Badami as its capital.

Pulakesin II (608-642 A.D.)

The most important ruler of this dynasty was Pulakesin II. The Aihole inscription issued by him gives the details of his reign. He fought with the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas of Mysore and established his suzerainty. Durvinita, the Ganga ruler accepted his overlordship and even gave his daughter in marriage to Pulakesin II. Another notable achievement of Pulakesin II was the defeat of Harshavardhana on the banks of the river Narmada. He put a check to the ambition of Harsha to conquer the south. In his first expedition against the Pallavas, Pulakesin II emerged victorious. But he suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of Narasimhavarman I near Kanchi. Subsequently, the Chalukya capital Vatapi was captured and destroyed by the Pallavas. The most important event in the reign of Pulakesin II was the visit of Hiuen Tsang to his kingdom. The successor of Pulakesin II was Vikramaditya. He once again consolidated the Chalukya kingdom and plundered the Pallava capital, Kanchi. Thus, he had avenged his father’s defeat and death at the hands of the Pallavas. Kirtivarman II was the last of the rulers of the Chalukyas. He was defeated by Dantidurga, the founder of the Rashtrakutas dynasty. Administration and Social Life under the Chalukyas The Chalukya administration was highly centralized unlike that of the Pallavas and the Cholas. Village autonomy was absent under the Chalukyas. The Chalukyas had a great maritime power. Pulakesin II had 100 ships in his navy. They also had a small standing army. The Badami Chalukyas were Brahmanical Hindus but they gave respect to other religions. Importance was given to Vedic rites and rituals. The founder of the dynasty Pulakesin I performed the asvamedha sacrifice. A number of temples in honour of Vishnu, Siva and other gods were also built during this period. Hiuen Tsang mentioned the decline of Buddhism in western Deccan. But Jainism was steadily on the path of progress in this region. Ravikirti, the court poet of Pulakesin II who composed the Aihole inscription was a Jain.

Art and Architecture

The Chalukyas were great patrons of art. They developed the vesara style in the building of structural temples. However, the vesara style reached its culmination only under the Rashtrakutas and the Hoysalas. The structural temples of the Chalukyas exist at Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal. Cave temple architecture was also famous under the Chalukyas. Their cave temples are found in Ajanta, Ellora and Nasik. The best specimens of Chalukya paintings can be seen in the Badami cave temple and in the Ajanta caves. The reception given to a Persian embassy by Pulakesin II is depicted in a painting at Ajantha. The Chalukya temples may be divided into two stages. The first stage is represented by the temples at Aihole and Badami. Among the seventy temples found at Aihole, four are important.

  1. Ladh Khan temple is a low, flat-roofed structure consisting of a pillared hall.
  2. Durga temple resembles a Buddha Chaitya.
  3. Huchimalligudi temple.
  4. The Jain temple at Meguti.

Among the temples at Badami, the Muktheeswara temple and the Melagutti Sivalaya are notable for their architectural beauty. A group of four rock-cut temples at Badami are marked by high workmanship. The walls and pillared halls are adorned by beautiful images of gods and human beings.

The second stage is represented by the temples at Pattadakal. There are ten temples here, four in the northern style and the remaining six in the Dravidian style. The Papanatha temple is the most notable in the northern style. The Sangamesvara temple and the Virupaksha temple are famous for their Dravidian style. The Virupaksha temple is built on the model of the Kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram. It was built by one of the queens of Vikramaditya II. Sculptors brought from Kanchi were employed in its construction.

Rashtrakutas (755 – 975 A.D.)

The Rashtrakutas were of Kannada origin and Kannada language was their mother tongue. Dantidurga was the founder of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. He defeated the Gurjaras and captured Malwa from them. Then he annexed the Chalukya kingdom by defeating Kirtivarman II. Thus, the Rashtrakutas become a paramount power in the Deccan. His successor Krishna I was also a great conqueror. He defeated the Ganges and the eastern Chalukyas of Vengi. He built the magnificent rock-cut monolithic Kailasa temple at Ellora. The next important king of this dynasty was Govinda III. He achieved victories over north Indian kingdoms.

His successor Amoghavarsha I (815- 880 A.D.) ruled for a long period of 64 years. He had lost control over Malwa and Gangavadi. Yet, his reign was popular for cultural development. He was a follower of Jainism. Jinasena was his chief preceptor. He was also a patron of letters and he himself wrote the famous Kannada work, Kavirajamarga. He had also built the Rashtrakuta capital, the city of Malkhed or Manyakheda.

Among the successors of Amoghavarsha I, Krishna III (936- 968 A.D.) was famous for his expeditions. He marched against the Cholas and defeated them at Takkolam. He marched further south and captured Tanjore. He went as far as Rameswaram and occupied it for some time. He built several temples in the conquered territories including the Krishneswara temple at Rameswaram. Throughout his reign he possessed the Tondaimandalam region including the capital Kanchi. After his death, the power of the Rashtrakutas declined.

Administrering

The Rashtrakuta Empire was divided into several provinces called rashtras under the control of rashtrapati. They were further divided into vishayas or districts governed by vishayapatis. The next subdivision was bhukti consisting of 50 to 70 villages under the control of bhogapathi. These officers were directly appointed by the central government. The village administration was carried on by the village headmen. However, the village assemblies played a significant role in the village administration.

Society and Economy

The Hindu sects of Vaishnavism and Shaivism flourished during the period of Rashtrakutas. Yet, they did not affect the progress of Jainism under the patronage of Rashtrakuta kings and officers. Almost one third of the population of the Deccan were Jains. There were some prosperous Buddhist settlements at places like Kanheri, Sholapur and Dharwar. There was harmony among various religions. There was a college at Saratoga, situated in modern Bijapur district. An inscription gives details of this educational centre. It was run by the income from the endowments made by the rich as well as by all the villagers on occasions of functions and festivals. The economy was also in a flourishing condition. There was an active commerce between the Deccan and the Arabs. The Rashtrakuta kings promoted the Arab trade by maintaining friendship with them.

Cultural Contributions

The Rashtrakutas widely patronized the Sanskrit literature. There were many scholars in the Rashtrakuta court. Trivikrama wrote Nalachampu and the Kavirahasya was composed by Halayudha during the reign of Krishna III. The Jain literature flourished under the patronage of the Rashtrakutas. Amoghavarsha I, who was a Jain patronized many Jain scholars. His teacher Jinasena composed Parsvabhudaya, a biography of Parsva in verses.

Another scholar unabhadra wrote he Adipurana, the life stories of various Jain saints. Sakatayana wrote the grammer work called Amogavritti. The great mathematician of this period, Viracharya was the author of Ganitasaram. The Kannada literature saw its beginning during the period of the Rashtrakutas. Amoghavarsha Kavirajamarga was the first poetic work in Kannada language. Pampa was the greatest of the Kannada poets. His famous work was Vikramasenavijaya. Ponna was another famous Kannada poet and he wrote Santipurana.

Art and Architecture

The art and architecture of the Rashtrakutas were found at Ellora and Elephanta. At Ellora, the most remarkable temple is the Kailasa temple. It was excavated during the reign of Krishna I. It is carved out of a massive block of rock 200 feet long, and 100 feet in breadth and height. The temple consists of four parts – the main shrine, the entrance gateway, an intermediate shrine for Nandi and mandapa surrounding the courtyard.

The temple stands on a lofty plinth 25 feet high. The central face of the plinth has imposing figures of elephants and lions giving the impression that the entire structure rests on their back. It has a three-tiered sikhara or tower resembling the sikhara of the Mamallapuram rathas. In the interior of the temple there is a pillared hall which has sixteen square pillars.

The Kailasa temple is an architectural marvel with its beautiful sculptures. The sculpture of the Goddess Durga is shown as slaying the Buffalo demon. In another sculpture Ravana was making attempts to lift Mount Kailasa, the abode of Siva. The scenes of Ramayana were also depicted on the walls. The general characteristics of the Kailasa temple are more Dravidian. Elephanta is an island near Bombay. It was originally called Sripuri. The Portuguese after seeing the large figure of an elephant named it Elephanta. The sculptural art of the Rashtrakutas reached its zenith in this place. There is a close similarity between the sculptures at Ellora and those in Elephanta. They might have been carved by the same craftsmen. At the entrance to the sanctum there are huge figures of dwara-palakas.

In the walls of the prakara around the sanctum there are niches containing the images of Shiva in various forms – Nataraja, Gangadhara, Ardhanareeswara and Somaskanda. The most imposing figure of this temple is Trimurthi. The sculpture is six metre high. It is said to represent the three aspects of Shiva as Creator, Preserver and Destroyer.


Pallava Dynasty Administration

Kingship was hereditary and, on some occasions, the king was being elected. Since Pallavas had a vast empire ranging from Nellore in the North to South Pennar River in the south a planned administration was required. Most of the kings were scholars and had good knowledge about the administration. Mostly the rulers of Pallavas followed the Mauryan system of administration.

The council of ministers consisted of officials variously called Matras, Mantris, etc. The king, however, was the supreme judicial authority. There were many servants in the king’s palace who held office hereditarily. The goldsmith and the minor poets in the court held such offices. The army consisted of the land army as well as the navy and the mode of fighting did not seriously differ from that of the earlier period. Salt manufacture was a monopoly of the state. Toddy tappers, the cattle breeders, the priestly community, the potters, the goldsmiths, textile dealers, weavers, oil mongers, brokers, dealers in milk products, armament makers, owners of public places, etc., were all taxed independently.

Hieun Tsang visited the Pallava Kingdom also. He says that the people were honest and followed Hinduism and Buddhism. They were also Jains. Mahendra Varman himself was a Jain before he started worshipping Lord Shiva. Thereafter, All the Pallavas kings worshipped either Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu and believed in Hinduism. But, they practiced tolerance towards other religions. The Pallava capital, Kanchi was a city of temples and Vedic learning. The Pallavas proved to be pretty generous rulers. Numerous villages were granted free of taxes to the Brahmanas by them. The Pallavas also found their colonies in Sumatra, which is present-day Indonesia, in the initial centuries of the Christian era.

Want to know more about the glorious past and Royal rule of the Pallavas. The Pallavas portrays every inch of the empire beautifully and unveils many facts and mysteries which were veiled for a long time. The Pallavas by G. Jouveau Dubreuil is really a beautiful depiction of The Royal history of The Pallavas.


Pallava Sculpture and Architecture

Pallavas sculpture have a lot of passion and we can see slender skills of the artists in the carving of the sculptures. Pallava dynasty was a famous dynasty in South India. The Pallava kings played a patron role to flourish art and architecture in their kingdom. The present Pallava art and sculptures are dated back to the 610 AD to 690 AD. Probably the rock cut caves also came into existence during the period of Pallavas. The kings of Pallavas encouraged the artists to construct the temples and replaced the old temples with innovative rock sculptures and architecture.

Pallavas and Their Style of Sculptures:

During the rule of Pallavas, the artists improved their skills of excavating temples from the rocks. There were special institutions to teach the techniques of carving the architecture. They brought the Dravidian style of art and introduced in the temple construction. The development of temple and architecture changed from one king to another. They brought the cave based constructing temples to structural temples. The Pallavas constructed many monuments around the temples. According to the Historians, the temple construction styles changed in four stages.

The great Mahendravarma I encouraged the rock cut temples, we can see them at Mahendravadi, Mamandur, Dalavanm, Vallan and some other places in Tamilnadu. We can see the second stage of Pallava style of temples at Mamallapuram. Here the temple’s architecture constructed by Monolithic rathas and Mandapas. Narasimhavarman constructed the temples with magnificent architectural monuments. The mandapas in the temples had the decorations with stunning sculptures, which were narrating the stories of Hindu epics.

Rock Cut Temples to Structural Temples:

Kanchipuram temples Muktheeswara, Matagenswara, and Vaikundaperumal temples belonged to the style of Pallava architecture. At the beginning of the Pallava dynasty the rock architecture in peak stage. The Pallavas encouraged structural temples. The Pallava king Mahendravarman I involved in the evolution of rock cut structural temples like Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram. During the 6th and 9th century most of the temples in Tamilnadu constructed in the style of Pallava architecture.


Unique Architecture of Vaikuntha Perumal Temple

There are few architectural and design elements that make this temple very different and special. Let me share some of them with you:

3 Tier Sanctum

This temple has 3 sanctums on three floors. Yes, you heard it right. Unlike a single sanctum in most temples, this one has three one on top of the other. 3 sanctums have 3 Vishnu images in 3 different poses.

Sanctum on the ground floor has Vishnu in a sitting position. There is a small mandapam in front of the Murti supported by the lion face pillars. The Vishnu Murti is large, almost overwhelms you with its size. It is believed that Vishnu advises the king in this sitting posture as Acharya.

The Murti on the first floor has the Vishnu is in lying pose known as Sheshashayee Vishnu, as he sleeps in the Kshirsagar. This murti rests in a rather smaller room with plain walls. In this pose, King serves Vishnu as a disciple would serve his Guru.

You can approach this middle floor through the staircase that goes around the temple. The catch is this floor is opened only on Ekadashi or the 11th of every fortnight of lunar calendar followed in India. I was there the next day and had to really request the priest to open it for me. He made me wait for 3 hours before opening it for less than a minute and after taking a promise that no photographs would be clicked.

Second Floor

Second floor used to have a Vishnu Murti (some say Krishna) in standing pose. The image has been stolen and no one knows where it is at the moment. So, this floor is closed and inaccessible. In this standing posture, it is believed Vishnu taught the king as many as 18 different art forms.

The architecture of the three floors is such that you can do circumambulation at each level & the staircase is not visible from anywhere in the temple complex.

3 floors, 3 Vishnu Murtis in 3 different poses – sitting, sleeping and standing. I am not sure if the order has any significance, but I found this architecture quite unique.

The staircase from behind the ground floor sanctum opens up a huge sculpture of Vishnu in sitting posture. It is probably the best-maintained sculpture in the temple complex.

Moat Around the Temple

The plinth of the main temple or sanctum sits below the level where you enter the temple. Or you can think of a moat separating the pillared corridor that runs around the temple and the platform on which the temple stands.

You naturally wonder how would the temple look when rains would fill up this area. I remember visiting Airateshwara Temple in Darasuram when it was full of water. The temple reflecting in the waters was a stunning scene. Though, here, space is limited to see the full reflection of the temple.

I found this feature quite unique in this temple. I am yet to understand if there is a practical reason to build the moat around the temple.

Walls with Stories

The walls of corridors surrounding the sanctum are full of stories. Now, most Hindu Temples have sculptures carved all around them. What makes this temple special is the fact that panels on the left walls depict the stories of Vishnu, whose home this temple is. On the other hand, stories of right wall depict the parallel stories from the life of King Nandivarman who is credited with building this temple.

This juxtaposition of parallels between the stories of Vishnu and the King makes these sculptures interesting.

24 sculpted panels tell the Krishna Katha. There are Ganga & Yamuna on walls. Some interesting stories include the inclusion of a temple architecture on the walls, of traders from far and wide indicating the trade connections of Kanchipuram in good old days.

Sculptures are not in great shape. It does not look like they faced any vandalism, but the stone has started eroding with time. I hope some kind of conservation can be taken up to preserve these stories.

Lion Pillars of Pallavas

Tapering pillars with their base carved in the shape of a sitting lion are the hallmark of Pallava architecture in Tamil Nadu. You see them almost everywhere in Kanchipuram too, for it was the capital of Pallavas for a long time.

At this temple, these pillars in a neat clean row, stand out. Like I said before, standing in front of the sculpted walls, they look like guarding the stories. The visual they present is stunning. As this temple is not really crowded, you do get to see them without anyone blocking the view.

You would notice different colors of different pillars from pale sandstone to a dark granite color. Even the stylistic details are different in pillars of different colors. This is because the pillars were restored during the Vijayanagara empire that much later ruled Kanchipuram. So, in a way, this tells you the history of temple restoration and gives you the imprint of each dynasty that contributed.

108 Divya Desam Temple

This temple is one of the 108 Vishnu temples that collectively make 108 Divya Desams. The followers of Vishnu make it a point to visit all of them in their lifetime. Kanchipuram alone has 14 of these 108 temples.

History of Vaikuntha Perumal Temple

This temple is the second oldest temple in Kanchipuram after Kailasanathar Temple. It was built by Pallava King Nandivarman II in late 7th CE or early 8th CE and later maintained by the ruling Cholas and Vijayanagara kings. This makes it one of the earliest stone temples with Dravidian architecture. It would inspire the later temples in the region.

During Nandivarman II’s time, the temple was called Parmeshwara Vishnugriham, after the original name of the king Parmeshwara. It later came to be known as Vaikuntha Perumal Temple. Perumal is the name used for Vishnu in Tamil country.

Vishnu here is known as Vaikunthnathan. He lives here with his consort Vaikunthavalli.

Temple tank is called Airammadha Teertham.

Temple Legend

After I had admired the temple enough, I had this question – why was this beautiful Vishnu temple built in Shiva Kanchi when there is whole Vishnu Kanchi in Kanchipuram. Out, comes the story that explains it all.

The story says that King Viroacha who ruled from here was childless. He prayed to Shiva seeking the blessing of progeny. Shiva blessed him that Dwarpalas of Vishnu will be born to him as sons. In time he was blessed by two sons. They grew up as great Vishnu devotees and Vishnu lives here as Vaikunthnathan. Vaikuntha, as you know, is Vishnu’s Dham or heaven or home, as you like to perceive it.

To me, this legend brings the two main sects of Hinduism – Shaivas, and Vaishnavas together as followers of deities who respect each other and co-exist peacefully.

Vaikuntha Perumal Temple Festivals

Every Ekadashi, i.e. the 11th of every lunar month, a day associated with Vishnu is celebrated in the temple. Vaikuntha Ekadashi is a big festival apart from Ram Navmi and Krishna Janamasthmi.

As per D Dennis Hudson in his book on Vaikuntha Perumal Temple, the Murti in the middle floor is worshipped in 12 different forms of Vishnu –

  1. Keshava
  2. Narayana
  3. Madhava
  4. Govinda
  5. Vishnu
  6. Madhusudan
  7. Trivikram
  8. Vamana
  9. Sridhara
  10. Hrishikesh
  11. Padmanabha
  12. Damodara

Each form is worshipped for a lunar month beginning with the 10th of each month.

Unlike Varadaraja Perumal Temple in Vishnu Kanchi, this temple is visited by very few people. That lets you appreciate the nuances of the temple architecture. However, you find that buzz and energy missing that comes from the prayers of the devotees.



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